Here are two examples of the same abstract, sample one is an example of a badly written abstract, while sample two is an example of a well-written abstract. Reason for writing: What is the importance of the research. Following this checklist should increase the chance of people taking the time to obtain and read your complete paper. Rather, the abstract is a brief summary of the report contents that is often separately circulated so potential readers can decide whether to read the report. Six samples were placed in the spectrophotometer but two contained no enzyme; these acted as blanks for the other samples. The samples with a pH between six and eight had the greatest absorption rate of 70 percent compared to an absorption rate of 15 percent with a pH of 4; this suggests that Catecholase is most effective in a neutral pH ranging from six to eight.

• Check with your tutor what length of abstract is expected; normally they will be short and concise, with the result that    the sentences will be fairly dense and information-heavy. Informative abstract: Abstracts present the essential elements of a longer work in a short and powerful statement. You may be asked to include an abstract at the beginning of a piece of academic work, although confusingly this may also sometimes be called a summary, executive summary or executive abstract. It is considered extremely bad form to introduce new data in the conclusions. Also, the author never states why the experiment is being conducted. Do not be misled, however, from this list into thinking that the abstract is a long section. Such
a system is called an isolated word recognition system and
con sists of three major components that process human
speech: (1) the preprocessor which removes irregula rities
from the speech signal and then breaks it up into parts; (2)
the feature extractor which extracts 32 key features from
the signal; and (3) the classification phase which
identifies the spoken word and includes the training mode
and reference pattern memory. The most important goal of the DISCUSSION section is to interpret the results so that the reader is informed of the insight or answers that the results provide.

In particular, the parts may be merged or spread among a set of sentences. What makes it important enough to be studied. The form of the citation depends on the type of source being referenced, and is different for whole books, chapters in books, and articles published in a journal. If needed, the introduction also needs to present background information so that the reader can understand the significance of the problem. The first two sections are very similar and can be grouped together, but do not have to be.

Abstracts have always served the function of “selling” your work. In particular, the parts may be merged or spread among a set of sentences. References:

The REFERENCES section should contain complete citations following standard form. Levels: It is okay to use personal pronouns in the abstract and this sentence uses “we” effectively. After you have stated this, the abstract is complete. An accurate, schematic diagram depicting the apparatus should be included and referred to in the text as needed (if a diagram has been already provided it can be used in the report, provided that the source is properly referenced).

With a fresh eye, you’ll probably find new places to cut. But, even with the abstract’s brief length, don’t be afraid to reinforce a key point by stating it in more than one way or referring to it in more than one section. What was the question trying to be answered. Measured and calculated quantities), not to discussing their meaning or intepretation. • Avoid sentences that end in “is described”, “is reported”, “is analysed” or similar.

Its purpose is to make it possible for potential readers to quickly find out if the work is relevant to their needs and worth reading. Informative abstract: Abstracts present the essential elements of a longer work in a short and powerful statement. This helps to make the conclusions drawn from the results very clear to the reader. Thus, not only should you avoid “I”, but also “we”, “the author”, “the    writer” and so on. Why it was done and what is the problem being addressed. If a word is not adding something important, cut it.

This should directly follow the results so the reader knows what results led to what conclusions. • Avoid sentences that end in “is described”, “is reported”, “is analysed” or similar. (return to Sample 1). Rates: This sentence is addressing what was done, yet it barely conveys any information. The four remaining samples contained Catecholase ranging from 0.

Main thesis about abstract report writing

In the text of the report, a particular reference can be cited by using a numerical superscript that corresponds to its number in the reference list. Following this checklist should increase the chance of people taking the time to obtain and read your complete paper. One classical example is the taking of small differences between large numbers; for instance, 11. However, if you are asked to provide an abstract here at Birmingham City University, you will probably need to produce an informative type. The results should be summarized using appropriate Tables and Figures (graphs or schematics). Materials and Methods:

The purpose of the MATERIALS AND METHODS section is to describe the materials, apparatus, and procedures used to carry out the measurements.

This article describes how to write a good computer architecture abstract for both conference and journal papers. Ineffective: This sentence is in the present tense and needs to be switched to the past tense. Thus, not only should you avoid “I”, but also “we”, “the author”, “the    writer” and so on. It needs to be written last because it is the essence of your report, drawing information from all of the other sections of the report. An accurate, schematic diagram depicting the apparatus should be included and referred to in the text as needed (if a diagram has been already provided it can be used in the report, provided that the source is properly referenced). With the controls and the variables stated you can move on to your results. It must make sense all by itself. An abstract must be a fully self-contained, capsule description of the paper. This is the “so what” part of your experiment. If you decide to address them separately, make sure that you do not repeat anything. Although this may seem as though it is a short length to contain all of the required information, it is necessary because it forces you to be accurate and yet compact, two essential qualities.

Again, this is because the abstract should be about the research, not about the act of writing. What was in each sample, and what varied in each sample. An accurate, schematic diagram depicting the apparatus should be included and referred to in the text as needed (if a diagram has been already provided it can be used in the report, provided that the source is properly referenced). It is considered extremely bad form to introduce new data in the conclusions. This should not include many details, rather it should be a simple statement. How to Write an Abstract. What exactly is an effective enzyme. One good format to follow is that used in the Chemical Engineering Progress journal, published by AIChE. These provide a description of the report’s main topic and purpose, together with an overview of the contents. Your science fair project abstract lets people quickly determine if they want to read the entire report. It also must be clear enough so someone who is unfamiliar with your experiment could understand why you did what you did, and what the experiment indicated in the end. • Don’t include any references in the abstract, but do include relevant numerical data. It will help your reader to understand the paper and it will help people searching for a particular work to find it and decide whether it suits their purposes. The ABSTRACT is not a. This part of the abstract states what was done to try to answer the question proposed.

Here’s a tip: for your first draft, don’t be overly concerned about the length. Do not summarize information in a new way. Put it aside for a while, then come back and re-read your draft. • Check with your tutor what length of abstract is expected; normally they will be short and concise, with the result that    the sentences will be fairly dense and information-heavy. Following this checklist should increase the chance of people taking the time to obtain and read your complete paper. What makes it important enough to be studied. Before you know it you will have a tightly written abstract. It contains a brief outline of what was done, highlighting only crucial steps.

Includes a list of key elements for the abstract and examples. Reread your report with the purpose of abstracting. You do not need to explain how you deduced the conclusion from the results obtained, only the end conclusions. After you have stated this, the abstract is complete. The samples with a pH between six and eight had the greatest absorption rate of 70 percent compared to an absorption rate of 15 percent with a pH of 4; this suggests that Catecholase is most effective in a neutral pH ranging from six to eight. What did you find out. If the results were not definitive, specific future work that may be needed can be (briefly) described. The most important goal of the DISCUSSION section is to interpret the results so that the reader is informed of the insight or answers that the results provide. What exactly is an effective enzyme. For most science fairs it is limited to a maximum of 250 words (check the rules for your competition). Following this checklist should increase the chance of people taking the time to obtain and read your complete paper. Thus, not only should you avoid “I”, but also “we”, “the author”, “the    writer” and so on. An abstract is a concise summary of a body of information should as a report, dissertation, thesis or article. This suggests that a higher concentration of enzymes leads to a greater product production rate.

Additional information about abstract report writing:

This part of the abstract states what was done to try to answer the question proposed. 3 yields a very large fractional error (about 70 %) on the resulting difference, 0. Despite the fact that an abstract is quite brief, it must do almost as much work as the multi-page paper that follows it. But now, instead of merely convincing the reader to keep reading the rest of the attached paper, an abstract must convince the reader to leave the comfort of an office and go hunt down a copy of the article from a library (or worse, obtain one after a long wait through inter-library loan). Also, the author never states why the experiment is being conducted.

Your abstract is simply a short, standalone summary of the work or paper that others can use as an overview. In other words, what did all of your hard work and preparation tell you about the question you set out to answer. References:

The REFERENCES section should contain complete citations following standard form. Measured and calculated quantities), not to discussing their meaning or intepretation. Sample 1: This experiment will determine what will make enzymes effective and what will make them ineffective. Some points to consider include:.

Was the same enzyme used in every sample. Consider the main parts of the abstract listed in step #1. The research analyzes the different approaches to reducing traffic congestion in the UK and provides conclusions and recommendations for future implementation. Discussion:

The DISCUSSION interprets the results in light of the project’s objectives. It is the materials and methods section of your abstract, but it is only one or two sentences in length. 3 yields a very large fractional error (about 70 %) on the resulting difference, 0. Science is an exploration for truth.

Philip Koopman, Carnegie Mellon University October, 1997. Seeing as an abstract is only a summary of the work you’ve already done, it’s easy to accomplish. The ABSTRACT is not a. Why it was done and what is the problem being addressed. Check with your department which term you should use. The controls and the variables are stated clearly and succinctly so the reader knows what factors are being tested to determine enzyme productivity.

The detail should be sufficient so that the reader can easily understand what was done

Html), the essential parts of an informative abstract are:

• Background: A simple opening sentence or two placing the work in context. They are usually very short – just a sentence or two – and may even appear on the title page (or at the beginning of a journal article). [1] An abstract describes what you do in your essay, whether it’s a scientific experiment or a literary analysis paper. Sample 2: This experiment was performed to determine the factors that positively influence enzyme reaction rates in cellular activities since some enzymes seem to be more effective than others. After you have finished rereading your report, write a rough draft without looking back at your report. It explains why the experiment was performed and what conclusions were drawn from the results obtained.

It explains why the experiment was performed and what conclusions were drawn from the results obtained

Use the following as a checklist for your next abstract:. It is all about curiosity and answering questions to find out why and how things work. If it is required, it is the first part of your report, directly following the title page and proceeding the introduction. The scientific method is a clear example of this; first state a problem or question and then try to determine the answer. Here are two examples of the same abstract, sample one is an example of a badly written abstract, while sample two is an example of a well-written abstract. During
speech, sound is generated by the vocal cords and by air
rushing from the lungs. The first two sections are very similar and can be grouped together, but do not have to be. Therefore, any conclusions should be based on observations and data already discussed.

It explains why the experiment was performed and what conclusions were drawn from the results obtained. It is better to write about the research than about the    paper. The references should be numbered and listed in the order they were cited in the body of the report. During
speech, sound is generated by the vocal cords and by air
rushing from the lungs. We tested different samples of enzymes in a spectrophotometer and recorded their absorption rates.

Throughout the report, but especially in this section, pay attention to reporting numbers with an appropriate number of significant figures. In fact, it should be significantly shorter than all of the others. High: This is just too general, although it conveys the right information. Since an abstract is so short, each section is usually only one or two sentences long. One classical example is the taking of small differences between large numbers; for instance, 11. You need not include how you drew your conclusions, only the final conclusion.

Measured and calculated quantities), not to discussing their meaning or intepretation. Reread your report with the purpose of abstracting. In addition to tense problems, the sentence does not tell the reader much about what is meant by the term effective. What was the question trying to be answered. Here are two examples of the same abstract, sample one is an example of a badly written abstract, while sample two is an example of a well-written abstract. Use the following as a checklist for your next abstract:. The second half of the experiment contained four test tubes with a constant amount of Catecholase, but the pH levels ranged from four to eight.

Reread your report with the purpose of abstracting. • Method(s): One or two sentences explaining what was done. Consider the main parts of the abstract listed in step #1. For the purposes of writing an abstract. What exactly is an effective enzyme. The ABSTRACT is not a.

The amounts of enzyme do not need to be stated, nor do the pH levels

Informative abstract: Abstracts present the essential elements of a longer work in a short and powerful statement. Results:

The RESULTS section is dedicated to presenting the actual results (i. • Avoid sentences that end in “is described”, “is reported”, “is analysed” or similar. The controls and the variables are stated clearly and succinctly so the reader knows what factors are being tested to determine enzyme productivity. These two sections can be grouped together into one brief statement summarizing why the experiment was performed in the first place. It is better to write about the research than about the    paper.