This caused characters to be dropped when sending a message. The circuit was designed according to the specifications obtained from the Computer Engineering Laboratories web site for ECPE 4535 [Lineberry, 2001]. Overall, this section of the laboratory went smoothly. The initial setup of the serial subsystem of the 68HC11 involved some troubleshooting. Hardware schematic for the temperature measurement circuit designed for this lab. The abstract should be written concisely in normal rather than highly abbreviated English. >
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Appendix C: Program Listing
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Hardware was added to control the measurement and display of the temperature. Often undergraduate labs are intended to illustrate important physical laws, such as Kirchhoff’s voltage law, or the Müller-Lyer illusion. Besides temperature measurement, A/D converters have many applications in automatic control systems and factory automation. >
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Appendix C: Program Listing
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Assembler release TER_2. The amount of lighting was based on the present value of TEMP. How well has the theory been illustrated.

The objectives of this lab were to develop the necessary hardware and software to have the HC11 measure temperature and indicate whether that temperature fell outside of prescribed limits. The second subroutine, SendMsg, used the SendChar subroutine to write character strings to the remote PC terminal. Temperature measurement and display system developed for the Motorolla 68HC11 microcontroller, which is attached to a universal evaluation board (EVBU). For instance, the guidelines for many laboratory reports call for an abstract to appear in the report’s beginning. Care should be taken to limit the background to whatever is pertinent to the experiment.

It is best to use past tense. Actual Temperature Number of LEDs Lit 15°F 0 28°F 1 33°F 2 56°F 4 110°F 8 >
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Adding Serial Output to the HC11
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This section presents the addition of four subroutines to the existing software developed in the previous section. One reason is to communicate the laboratory work to management. This caused characters to be dropped when sending a message. My partner assumed the lead role in connecting the hardware, and I assumed the lead role in writing the programs. Then put your sentences together in a block paragraph in the proper order: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion.

Usually, an instructor does not want you to repeat the lab manual, but to show your own comprehension of the problem. If the amount of introductory material seems to be a lot, consider adding subheadings such as: Theoretical Principles or Background. A good introduction will answer several questions, including the following:. For example, if the appendix contains tables of test data, the appendix should not only contain the tabular data, but also formally introduce those tables, discuss why they have been included, and explain the unusual aspects that might confuse the reader. ” If TEMP was between 20 and 90 degrees Farenheit, CheckLimits called SendMsg to print the following message: “Temperature is acceptable.

” If TEMP was between 20 and 90 degrees Farenheit, CheckLimits called SendMsg to print the following message: “Temperature is acceptable. Be aware that the word data is plural while datum is singular. >
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Appendix B: Pseudocode for the Software Developed
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Assessment of Design. The register ADR3 held the result of the A/D conversions, which was treated as an 8-bit binary fraction between 0 and 1. The amount of lighting was based on the present value of TEMP.

Merely recording the expected and observed results is not sufficient; you should also identify how and why differences occurred, explain how they affected your experiment, and show your understanding of the principles the experiment was designed to examine. The hardware for the temperature measurement circuit included both a temperature sensor attached to Port E and LEDs attached to Port B. After a 100 microsecond delay to allow the charge pump to stabilize, the control word was written to the ADCTL register to start continuous, single-scan conversions on pin E2 of Port E. In general, you should give the audience enough information that they could replicate your results. To control this added hardware, we programmed the HC11 following the pseudo code and program listing given in Appendices B and C, respectively. A paper by Smith, Lynch, Merrill, and Beam published in 1989 would be cited in the text as:.

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Appendix B: Pseudocode for the Software Developed
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*In an actual report, the pseudocode would appear here. The diagnosis and solutions to these problems are discussed in this section.

Main thesis about writing laboratory reports

If the value in accumulator A was greater than or equal to 20, then the value in accumulator B was shifted one position left and incremented, and 10 was subtracted from accumulator A. This problem was fixed by making a variable called FLG that was set as soon as the alarm message was sent and then cleared when the temperature returned to the normal operating region. The subroutine SetDisp controlled the lighting of the LEDs connected to Port B. Accumulator B was cleared to zero and represented the initial value to be written to Port B. For example, in an electric motor drive, the phase currents and flux are continually measured by using scaling circuitry and an A/D converter input to a microprocessor. The subroutine CheckLimits called SendMsg to print the following message if TEMP was less than 20 degrees Fahrenheit: “Temperature is very low.

It typically consists of one-sentence summaries (sometimes two sentences) of each of the major sections of the report: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion. Afterwriting a report, read it over. By adding the NULL zero to the end of the strings, the sending of messages worked as expected. Then, bit 6 was cleared so that the charge pump used the system E-clock [Spasov, 1996]. Also note that some professors allow you to substitute an appendix with program flow charts for this appendix. To control this added hardware, we programmed the HC11 following the pseudo code and program listing given in Appendices B and C, respectively.

An abbreviated form of this process appears in Figure 2 (the complete process appears in Appendix C). >
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Appendix A: Hardware Schematic
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Figure A-1 presents the hardware schematic for the temperature circuit. A final problem was the output rate of the alarm messages. This caused characters to be dropped when sending a message. In the calibration, the potentiometer’s initial voltage was measured. ” If TEMP was between 20 and 90 degrees Farenheit, CheckLimits called SendMsg to print the following message: “Temperature is acceptable. The third and final subroutine, CheckLimits, was added to the existing software program to check the temperature range. Learn to reread and edit your work. In some formats, “Results” and “Discussion” appear as separate sections. >
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Appendix A: Hardware Schematic
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Figure A-1 presents the hardware schematic for the temperature circuit.

The only way to prevent such errors is to read and think about what you write. For example, in an electric motor drive, the phase currents and flux are continually measured by using scaling circuitry and an A/D converter input to a microprocessor. Generally, this is enough; however, the conclusion might also be a place to discuss weaknesses of experimental design, what future work needs to be done to extend your conclusions, or what the implications of your conclusion are. The circuitry was scaled so that 0 volts out corresponded to 0 degrees and 5 volts out corresponded to 110 degrees. Actual Temperature Number of LEDs Lit 15°F 0 28°F 1 33°F 2 56°F 4 110°F 8 >
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Adding Serial Output to the HC11
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This section presents the addition of four subroutines to the existing software developed in the previous section.

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Appendix C: Program Listing
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. By adding the NULL zero to the end of the strings, the sending of messages worked as expected. After waiting for the TDRE bit in the SCSR register to be set, indicating that the HC11 is ready to transmit another byte, the value in accumulator A was written to the SCDR register to begin the transmission [Motorola, 1991]. Another task within this objective was developing software to initialize the serial subsystem. >
Spasov, Peter, Microcontroller Technology: The 68HC11, 2nd ed. Rather, you should pay attention to the organization requested by your instructor who has chosen an organization that best serves your experiments. In such situations, management often bases. The subroutine GetTemp was used to input and scale the analog voltage from the temperature sensor circuit.

The amount of lighting was based on the present value of TEMP. >
Procedures for Design. The initial setup of the serial subsystem of the 68HC11 involved some troubleshooting. Moreover, some instructors frown on the use of the first person (I or we). Overall, this section of the laboratory went smoothly.

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Appendix B: Pseudocode for the Software Developed
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*In an actual report, the pseudocode would appear here. From Table 1, we verified that the developed hardware and software for this part of the lab were functioning properly. This value was loaded into accumulator A and then multiplied by a scale factor of 110 using the MUL instruction. In most cases, providing a sample calculation is sufficient in the report. >
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Appendix A: Hardware Schematic
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Figure A-1 presents the hardware schematic for the temperature circuit. >
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Appendix A: Hardware Schematic
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Figure A-1 presents the hardware schematic for the temperature circuit. The amount of lighting was based on the present value of TEMP. One important way to present numerical results is to show them in graphs. My partner assumed the lead role in connecting the hardware, and I assumed the lead role in writing the programs.

Additional information about writing laboratory reports:

This failure caused messages to be continually sent to the PC terminal when the temperature was outside of the normal operating region. This problem was fixed by making a variable called FLG that was set as soon as the alarm message was sent and then cleared when the temperature returned to the normal operating region. After the number of LEDs to turn on were determined, as shown in Figure 2, the number of bits indicated by the count value in accumulator B were set high on Port B beginning with bit 0 [Motorola, 1991]. The lab report or the scientific paper is the vehicle of persuasion; when it is published, it is available to other scientists for review. While developing the design presented in this section, several mistakes and difficulties were encountered.

First, TEMP was loaded into accumulator A and compared with the value 20, the designated cut-off for low temperature. Flowchart illustrating the determination of the number of Port B bits to enable for the LED display. The InitSCI subroutine initialized the serial subsystem of the HC11 so that it could communicate with the host PC at 9600 baud [Spasov, 1996]. Required to write more extended and increasingly original research reports that . A final problem was the output rate of the alarm messages. The second objective of the design was to use the HC11 to indicate if the temperature went outside of prescribed limits: below 20 degrees Fahrenheit or above 90 degrees Fahrenheit.

The Study Guides and Strategies Website is intended for students, ages middle school through returning adult, as well as their parents, teachers and support professionals. Also note that some professors allow you to substitute an appendix with program flow charts for this appendix. If the objectives were not met, you should analyze why the results were not as predicted. This value was loaded into accumulator A and then multiplied by a scale factor of 110 using the MUL instruction. >
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Appendix A: Hardware Schematic
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Figure A-1 presents the hardware schematic for the temperature circuit. An abstract is a miniature version of the whole lab report. We also had a problem sending out messages using SendMsg because we did not terminate the message strings correctly with the NULL zero.

Sample Lab Report in the Writing Guidelines for Engineering and Science Students: guidelines to help students of science and engineering make their writing more. Then, bit 6 was cleared so that the charge pump used the system E-clock [Spasov, 1996]. While developing the design presented in this section, several mistakes and difficulties were encountered. This affects the choice of a correct verb. If this assumption were true, the friction force from the torque would be Ff = T/r (where T is the torque and r is the radius of the potentiometer’s shaft). ” If TEMP was greater that 90 degrees Fahrenheit, CheckLimits called SendMsg to print the following message: “Temperature is very high.

Another task within this objective was developing software to initialize the serial subsystem. Bear in mind that a format, however helpful, cannot replace clear thinking and organized writing. In the lab, an A/D converter allowed us access to analog inputs of temperature from a remote computer. We also had problems with sending the alarm messages more than one time because a flag variable was not set. The information should clearly enable readers to decide whether they need to read your whole report. >
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Appendix C: Program Listing
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When citing references in the text, do not use footnotes; instead, refer to articles by the author’s name and the date the paper was published

A good title captures what is important about the lab, including the scientific concept the lab is about and variables involved, the procedure, or anything else that is useful for describing what this report is about. The subroutine CheckLimits called SendMsg to print the following message if TEMP was less than 20 degrees Fahrenheit: “Temperature is very low. The first subroutine, SendChar, was added to send a single data byte from the HC11 to the remote PC terminal. We also had a problem sending out messages using SendMsg because we did not terminate the message strings correctly with the NULL zero. One important way to present numerical results is to show them in graphs. From Table 1, we verified that the developed hardware and software for this part of the lab were functioning properly. The abstract often also includes a brief reference to theory or methodology. Before calling SendMsg, the X index register was set to point to the beginning of the character string to be sent. Laboratory reports are written for several reasons. The data should be organized into tables, figures, graphs, photographs, and so on. Although one of us had a lead role in performing either the hardware or the software, we worked collaboratively in checking both the hardware and software and in troubleshooting any problems. Within the circuit was an LM3911 temperature controller integrated circuit (IC), the output of which we connected to a non-inverting op-amp.

The three subroutines were named Startup, GetTemp, and SetDisp. In an actual report, all the connections, pin numbers, and pin labels should be shown. At first, we did not set a flag to indicate to the program that a message had already been sent to the PC. Accumulator B was cleared to zero and represented the initial value to be written to Port B. >
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Conclusions
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This report has discussed the development of a temperature measurement and display system.

The resulting relationship was 0. ” If TEMP was greater that 90 degrees Fahrenheit, CheckLimits called SendMsg to print the following message: “Temperature is very high. Worse yet, each professor wants something a little different. In a laboratory report, appendices often are included. Hardware schematic for the temperature measurement circuit designed for this lab. Also note that some professors allow you to substitute an appendix with program flow charts for this appendix.

Flowchart illustrating the determination of the number of Port B bits to enable for the LED display. At first, we did not set a flag to indicate to the program that a message had already been sent to the PC. Hardware schematic for the temperature measurement circuit designed for this lab. If the value in accumulator A was greater than or equal to 20, then the value in accumulator B was shifted one position left and incremented, and 10 was subtracted from accumulator A. For each mass, the string was rolled up on the shaft, the oscilloscope was triggered, and the shaft was released. Then, bit 6 was cleared so that the charge pump used the system E-clock [Spasov, 1996]. The abstract often also includes a brief reference to theory or methodology.

Table 1 shows the results of the measurement comparison, where the actual temperatures measured are shown on the left, and the temperatures represented by the number of LEDs lit are shown on the right. In the lab, an A/D converter allowed us access to analog inputs of temperature from a remote computer. The first subroutine, SendChar, was added to send a single data byte from the HC11 to the remote PC terminal. For example: Fox in 1988 investigated the hormones on the nest-building behavior of catbirds. ” If TEMP was greater that 90 degrees Fahrenheit, CheckLimits called SendMsg to print the following message: “Temperature is very high. The “Procedures,” often called the “Methods,” discusses how the experiment occurred.

At first, we did not set a flag to indicate to the program that a message had already been sent to the PC

The three subroutines were named Startup, GetTemp, and SetDisp.

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Appendix B: Pseudocode for the Software Developed
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*In an actual report, the pseudocode would appear here. Hardware schematic for the temperature measurement circuit designed for this lab. Although one of us had a lead role in performing either the hardware or the software, we worked collaboratively in checking both the hardware and software and in troubleshooting any problems. The circuitry was scaled so that 0 volts out corresponded to 0 degrees and 5 volts out corresponded to 110 degrees. For line orientation, overestimation was greatest when the lines were horizontal.