In Yokohama, over 50 percent of the buildings were destroyed [Bolt, 1993], and as many as 208 fires broke out and spread through the city [Hodgson, 1964]. Geophysical precursors are changes in the physical state of the earth that are precursory to earthquakes. I have gathered five books and several articles on the subject. This research culminates in a formal report, which will be completed by December 5, 1997. The fifth stage is the sudden drop in stress in the fault.

Schedule for completion of literature review. In my undergraduate courses I have taken rock mechanics, soil mechanics, geophysics, and stratigraphy, all of which have included the principles of seismology and stress-strain relationships. For that reason, I will not consider it. A secondary audience for the review would be non-technical readers who either live in earthquake-prone areas or are affected financially when earthquakes occur. On December 20, 1974, an earthquake warning was issued. I will base my evaluation on the sources mentioned above as well as specific Environmental Protection Agency standards.

, Earthquakes, Animals and Man (Pune, India: The Maharashtra Association for the Cultivation of Science, 1987). The two triangles represent milestones for the project, the first being the formal presentation on November 11, 1996, and the second being the formal report on December 6, 1996. This research culminates in a formal report, which will be completed by December 5, 1997. Although many sites in the United States could meet the DOE’s established criteria, I will consider only Yucca Mountain because the DOE is considering only Yucca Mountain [Taube, 1995]. I am a senior in the Geological Engineering Department at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. Because I already possess several books and articles on earthquake prediction, most of my time will be spent sifting through the information, finding the key results, and presenting those results to the audience. I have taken several classes related to nuclear waste, economics, and environmental studies. In 1970, Chinese scientists targeted the Liaoning Province as a site with potential for a large earthquake. They also know that if earthquakes could be predicted, people would be able to prepare for them and lives would be saved.

References Clark, Raymond L. Several journal articles and papers discussing the possibility of Yucca Mountain as a spent fuel repository in our near future have surfaced as a consequence of that interest. 8 earthquake struck the Liaoning Province; however, further monitoring suggested a larger earthquake was imminent [Mileti and others, 1981]. , Earthquakes and Earth Structure (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1964). 3 earthquake shook the city of Haicheng. The fourth stage is the actual rupture of the fault and the release of seismic waves. In addition, there are dozens of books and articles available in the library. My proposed literature review will provide this group with an unbiased discussion of three methods for earthquake prediction. 9 that occurred 97 minutes apart in Yunnan on May 19, 1976 [Bolt, 1993]. Should I not be able to find that information, I will modify the scope of my research accordingly. The fires lasted three days and destroyed 40 percent of the city [Hodgson, 1964]. The people in Haicheng were evacuated, and about 5. For instance, the ground uplift and tilt increases during the second stage as the volume of rock increases.

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Although many sites in the United States could meet the DOE’s established criteria, I will consider only Yucca Mountain because the DOE is considering only Yucca Mountain [Taube, 1995]. As far as location, a waste site cannot be in an area with a large population or near a ground water supply. In addition, there are dozens of books and articles available in the library. And if you can’t cite specific dates, cite amounts of time for each phase of the project. Two years later, an earthquake of magnitude 8 did strike Mexico City. The proposed research will achieve the following goals: (1) explain the criteria necessary to make a suitable high level radioactive waste repository, and (2) determine if Yucca Mountain meets these criteria.

I am a senior in the Geological Engineering Department at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997). As a consequence of that strong interest, many books and journals have been written on earthquakes and earthquake prediction. References Bolt, Bruce A. They also know that if earthquakes could be predicted, people would be able to prepare for them and lives would be saved.

This document has proposed research to evaluate the possibility of using Yucca Mountain as a possible repository for this spent nuclear fuel. , California Quake (Nashville: Sherbourne Press, 1977). Schedule for completion of literature review. However, they may not know the different methods of predicting earthquakes. Earthquakes occur in five stages as there is a build up of elastic strain within faults in the earth, followed by the development of cracks in the rocks, then the influx of water into those cracks. , Understanding Nuclear Waste (Battelle Press, 1989). In addition, I have taken field courses on structural geology that have introduced me to subsurface behaviors. The formal presentation will be on October 27, and the formal report will be completed by December 5. Analyzing statistical data on prior earthquakes, however, is solely a long-term prediction technique [Bolt, 1993]. Fire stations were destroyed, alarms were put out of commission, and water mains were broken. Schedule for completion of the literature review.

, Understanding Nuclear Waste (Battelle Press, 1989). For that reason, I will not consider it. For example, why does the electrical resistivity of rocks decrease before an oncoming earthquake. Should I require additional sources other than the ones I have, I will search for them in the library system at the University of Wisconsin. I estimate these expenses will not exceed . Should I not be able to find that information, I will modify the scope of my research accordingly.

The two triangles represent milestones for the project, the first being the formal presentation on November 11, 1996, and the second being the formal report on December 6, 1996. , California Quake (Nashville: Sherbourne Press, 1977). Since I already possess literature on the subject of Yucca Mountain as a nuclear waste site, most of my time will be spent sorting through the literature to find key results, and presenting those results to the audience. After explaining the criteria, I will assess how well Yucca Mountain meets those criteria. The only costs, which will be minor, are for copying articles, printing the review, and spiral binding the review. On February 4, 1975, the Chinese issued a warning that an earthquake would strike Haicheng within 24 hours [Bolt, 1993]. Because the primary readers for my proposed literature review are engineering students who are probably not familiar with the theories behind earthquakes, I will have to provide selected background information frommy sources. Or, what does a sudden increase in radon emissions reveal about the future likelihood of a massive earthquake. At present, the Department of Energy (DOE) has spent more than 1. Because the primary readers for my proposed literature review are engineering students who are probably not familiar with the theories behind earthquakes, I will have to provide selected background information frommy sources.

For that reason, I will not consider it. , Earthquakes, Animals and Man (Pune, India: The Maharashtra Association for the Cultivation of Science, 1987). Some of these earthquakes kill hundreds of people. In this stage, aftershocks occur. Earthquakes occur in five stages as there is a build up of elastic strain within faults in the earth, followed by the development of cracks in the rocks, then the influx of water into those cracks. This discussion, drawing much from overview chapters in Earthquakes, Animals and Man [Deshpande, 1987] and California Quake [Meyer, 1977], will put into perspective how accurate, or inaccurate, the named methods are and what hurdles face engineers who try to predict earthquakes. How do I know if I've written a report or proposal that my customer. I will base my evaluation on the sources mentioned above as well as specific Environmental Protection Agency standards.

In my research I will consider both groups of people

Management Plan This section presents my schedule, costs, and qualifications for performing the proposed research. Back to Top

. , Earthquakes and Earth Structure (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1964). Instead, I intend to evaluate the potential accuracy of monitoring each precursor based on the opinions of experts and preliminary data. Other earthquakes have been predicted, but the predictions didn’t have enough precision for warnings to be issued. She might respond by saying, “Write me a proposal and I’ll present it to upper management.

If the times, magnitudes, and locations of these earthquakes could be accurately predicted, many lives could be saved. In my undergraduate courses I have taken rock mechanics, soil mechanics, geophysics, and stratigraphy, all of which have included the principles of seismology and stress-strain relationships. One of the most famous predictions was the Haicheng Prediction in China. For further information about my qualifications, see the attached resume (not attached on this web site). After the fire, 68,000 people were dead and 1 million people were homeless [Bolt, 1993]. 3 earthquake shook the city of Haicheng. Background on the problem, opportunity, or situation. This document proposes a review of how monitoring geophysical precursors can help in the short-term prediction of earthquakes.

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For that reason, I will not consider it. I will try to account for as many of these other costs as possible. Although many sites in the United States could meet the DOE’s established criteria, I will consider only Yucca Mountain because the DOE is considering only Yucca Mountain [Taube, 1995]. This earthquake wasn’t completely unexpected, but the Chinese believed it to be a few years away. During the earthquake alert, people slept outdoors for two months. These books and articles should provide sufficient information for me to write my review.

To achieve these two goals, I will rely on three books that give an overview to earthquake prediction: Earthquakes [Bolt, 1988], Earthquakes and Geological Discovery [Bolt, 1993], and Earthquakes and Earth Structure [Hodgson, 1964]. In this assessment, only Yucca Mountain will be considered as a possible site. , Earthquakes and Geological Discovery (New York: Scientific American Library, 1993). In some situations, disagreement exists among experts as to how well Yucca Mountain meets a criterion. 5 hours later, a magnitude 7. In addition, there are dozens of books and articles available in the library. The only other minor costs are photocopying articles, creating transparencies for my presentation, printing my report, and binding my report.

Because the prediction was not more precise, no warning was issued and the earthquake took the population of Mexico City by surprise. In my review, I will discuss three common geophysical precursors: ground uplift and tilt, increases in radon emissions, and changes in the electrical resistivity of rocks. Should I not be able to find that information, I will modify the scope of my research accordingly. Back to Top

A Proposal to Review How Geophysical Precursors
Can Help Predict Earthquakes Christopher Gray
February 1995
Introduction Throughout the world, devastating earthquakes occur with little or no advance warning. A secondary audience for the review would be non-technical readers who either live in earthquake-prone areas or are affected financially when earthquakes occur. For example, an earthquake warning was issued in August 1976 near Hong Kong [Bolt, 1988]. Plan of Action This section presents my plan for obtaining the objectives discussed in the previous section. I have gathered five books and several articles on the subject.

Other costs, though, have to be considered

For that reason, I will not consider it. Given that I can obtain all my sources for the literature review from the library, there is no appreciable cost associated with performing this literature review. Many buildings collapsed, while others were severely damaged. I am a senior in the Engineering Physics Department at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, majoring in nuclear engineering and physics. 9 that occurred 97 minutes apart in Yunnan on May 19, 1976 [Bolt, 1993]. Fire stations were destroyed, alarms were put out of commission, and water mains were broken.